Multiple muscular anomalies of upper extremity: a cadaveric study

Vol. 49 No. 3, 2008


S. R. Nayak, A. Krishnamurthy, Lakshmi A. Ramanathan, Latha V. Prabhu, C. Ganesh Kumar, Dinit K. Tom, Teresa Joy

During routine cadaveric dissection, we encountered multiple muscular anomalies in a 58-year-old embalmed male cadaver. All the variations were encountered on the flexor compartment of right upper limb. The anomalies include an axillary arch (Aa) in the axilla, a third head of biceps brachii (Thb) in the arm, a reverse palmaris longus (Rpl) and a Gantzer's muscle (Gm) in the forearm and an unusually large palmaris brevis muscle (Pbm) in the palm. Anatomical description is achieved by measuring the length, width and attachments of the above-mentioned variants. The morphological and clinical significance of the anomalous muscles are discussed.

Corresponding author: Soubhagya Ranjan Nayak, MSc, e-mail:

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