Histopathological lesions induced by stroke in the encephalon

Vol. 64 No. 3, 2023


Octavian Paun, Roberta Andreea Cercel, Razvan Ilie Radu, Victor Cornel Raicea, Denisa Floriana Vasilica Pirscoveanu, Sorina Octavia Hontaru, Marian Valentin Zorila, Laurentiu Mogoanta

Strokes are conditions with a high degree of morbidity and mortality worldwide. These conditions profoundly affect the quality of life of patients; in addition to physical disabilities, patients present various mental disorders, such as mood disorders, anxiety, depression, behavioral disorders, fatigue, etc. Microscopic lesions of the brain parenchyma explain the clinical symptoms and correlate with the severity of the stroke. Our study consisted of the histopathological (HP) and immunohistochemical analysis of brain fragments, collected from 23 patients, with a clinical and imagistic diagnosis of stroke, who died during hospital admission. The microscopic analysis showed that both neurons and glial cells are affected in the ischemic focus. Neuronal death in the ischemic focus was mostly caused by cell necrosis and only about 10% by apoptosis. Regarding vascular lesions, it was observed that the most frequent HP lesion of intracerebral arterioles was arteriosclerosis. The lumen of the arterioles was reduced, and the vascular endothelium had a discontinuous aspect, which indicates a change in the blood-brain barrier. Sometimes the arteriole lumen was completely obstructed, with fibrinoid necrosis in the internal and middle tunic, or with the proliferation of fibroblasts and the formation of young intraluminal connective tissue. Intraparenchymal blood capillaries in the ischemic area showed endothelium discontinuities, lumen collapse, and sometimes massive perivascular edema. As for neuroinflammation, the presence of numerous neutrophils, lymphocytes, plasma cells and macrophages was found in the ischemic focus, forming a complex and inhomogeneous cellular mixture. Of the inflammatory cells present in the ischemic focus and in the ischemic penumbra area, the most numerous were the macrophages. The HP analysis showed that neuroinflammation is very complex and different in intensity from one patient to another, most likely due to associated comorbidities, age, treatment administered until death, etc.

Corresponding author: Marian Valentin Zorila, Lecturer, MD, PhD; e-mail: zorilavaly@yahoo.com.au; Sorina Octavia Hontaru, Lecturer; e-mail: dr.octavia1969@yahoo.com

DOI: 10.47162/RJME.64.3.10 Download PDF
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