Defining the short-term and long-term skin manifestations of COVID-19: insights after more than three years of the pandemic

Vol. 64 No. 3, 2023


Oana Maria Ica, George Mitroi, Simona Laura Ianosi, Cristina Violeta Tutunaru, Polliana Mihaela Leru, Daniela Matei, Elena Taina Avramescu, Cornelia Andreea Tanasie, Iulia Bianca Mitroi, Carmen Daniela Neagoe, Sergiu Marian Cazacu

Aim: This review aimed to assess the impact of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) on skin health to establish a classification of the skin lesions that occur most frequently during the disease and whether a particular category of skin damage is more likely to occur both in the short term and in the long term. Methods: We conducted a literature search of the PubMed database. Ultimately, 109 articles were included in this review. The exact phrases/syntax and connectors used for the database search/query were as follows: Coronavirus and skin, COVID-19 and skin, SARS-CoV-2 and skin, Coronavirus cutaneous manifestations, COVID-19 cutaneous manifestations, SARS-CoV-2 cutaneous manifestations, Coronavirus dermatology, SARS-CoV-2 and dermatology, COVID-19 and dermatology, COVID-19 and skin eruption, Coronavirus and skin rash, COVID-19 and hair, Coronavirus and hair, Coronavirus and nails, SARS-CoV-2 and hair, and SARS-CoV-2 and nails. Only articles with abstracts referring strictly to cutaneous manifestations of COVID-19 were chosen. Articles without abstracts were not considered. Results: We established six of the most frequently reported clinical patterns associated with COVID-19 and their probability of occurring during COVID-19 disease evolution based on the current literature reports. We did not identify the particular types of skin lesions that are most prone to long-term persistence; most such cases are rare, and no conclusion can be drawn based on them. Conclusions: Apart from classified COVID-19-related skin disorders, this pandemic has been a challenge for dermatologists and a wide range of cutaneous side effects related to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) treatments have been reported. We are aware of other polymorphic clinical presentations, with novel data being reported periodically, but the pathophysiological mechanisms and evolution are largely unknown.

Corresponding author: George Mitroi, Associate Professor, MD, PhD; e-mail:; Simona Laura Ianosi, Professor, MD, PhD; e-mail:

DOI: 10.47162/RJME.64.3.01 Download PDF
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