Oral cancer histopathological subtypes in association with risk factors: a 5-year retrospective study

Vol. 61 No. 4, 2020

ROMANIAN JOURNAL of MORPHOLOGY and EMBRYOLOGY

Alexandra Roi, Ciprian Ioan Roi, Nicoleta Ioana Andreescu, Mircea Rivis, Ioana Daniela Badea, Noemi Meszaros, Laura Cristina Rusu, Stela Iurciuc

Background: Oral cancer is a worldwide public health problem, being the sixth most common neoplasm. The high mortality rate of this type of cancer is due to a delayed diagnosis, a fast evolution and metastasis, no primary symptomatology, the multitude of risk factors and the lack of awareness among the population concerning oral malignancy. Aim: The aim of this 5-year retrospective study was to evaluate the incidence of oral cancer patients in the Clinic of Maxillo-Facial Surgery, Emergency County Hospital, Timisoara, Romania and quantify the histopathological (HP) subtypes, localization, age, gender, tumor staging and differentiation, positive loco-regional lymph nodes and risk factors. Patients, Materials and Methods: A number of 129 patients diagnosed with oral cancer were included in the study and their medical records were analyzed. A statistical analysis was performed that included the variables gender, age, tumor staging, differentiation grade, HP subtype, lymph nodes, localization, and risk factors. Results: Our results outlined a high prevalence of oral cancer among males (65.9%), squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) being the most common HP subtype. Tumor staging revealed the fact that the majority of were T3 and T4 tumors with dissemination in the loco-regional lymph nodes. In 52% of the cases, tobacco was identified as a risk factor, and the association of tobacco and alcohol was present in 28.3% of the cases. Conclusions: The early diagnosis is crucial for the improvement of oral cancer survival rate. The oral cavity is permanently exposed to carcinogenic substances that associated with other risk factors have an influence upon the incidence of oral malignancies.

Corresponding author: Mircea Rivis, Senior Lecturer, MD, PhD; e-mail: rivis.mircea@umft.ro; Ciprian Ioan Roi, Associate Professor, MD, DMD, PhD; e-mail: ciprian.roi@umft.ro

DOI: 10.47162/RJME.61.4.22 Download PDF
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