Periodontal clinico-morphological changes in patients wearing old nickel-chromium and copper alloys bridges

Vol. 61 No. 2, 2020


Luminita Daguci, Constantin Daguci, Cristiana Iulia Dumitrescu, Catalina Farcasiu, Daniela Ioana Tarlungeanu, Marilena Bataiosu, Magdalena Natalia Dina, Claudiu Margaritescu, Mihaela Jana Tuculina, Oana-Cella Andrei

Elderly population frequently presents more than one prosthetic restoration realized from different types of dental alloys which, in time, suffer various alterations in the oral environment. Metallic ions are released in saliva due to its electrolytic qualities, interacting with the contact tissues. Studies regarding cytotoxicity of dental alloys are providing contradictory results. Besides biocompatibility, the microbial factor is also greatly influencing the long-term success of the prosthetic rehabilitation. This study s aim was to assess the response of the gingival tissue to nickel-chromium (Ni-Cr) and copper (Cu)-based dental casting alloys from fixed dentures present in many patients from Romania. Gingival samples were taken from 124 patients wearing fixed dental restorations made from these two types of alloys from injured areas surrounding the abutment teeth; histological specimens were prepared, fixed in 10% neutral buffered formalin, paraffin-embedded and stained with Hematoxylin-Eosin (HE). Histological analysis showed the existence of a chronic inflammatory infiltrate in the gingival chorion, necrosis areas, and vascular congestion. Various morphological alterations appeared, depending on the intensity of the inflammation and the immune response. The surface epithelium suffered a hyperplasic reaction, either limited to acanthosis or involving the whole epithelium, the release of the Cu2+ and Ni2+ ions from the dental alloys used in bridges and crowns being responsible for inducing gingival hyperplasia and a chronic inflammation in the areas situated around the abutment teeth. The immunohistochemical study allowed us to observe an increased number of positive cluster of differentiation 3 (CD3) T-lymphocytes in periodontium, proving that the cellular immune response is rapid and intense.

Corresponding author: Marilena Bataiosu, Associate Professor, DMD, PhD; e-mail:; Cristiana Iulia Dumitrescu, Lecturer, MD, PhD; e-mail:

DOI: 10.47162/RJME.61.2.14 Download PDF
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