Histopathological features of low-dose organophosphate exposure

Vol. 61 No. 2, 2020


Cristian Cobilinschi, Radu Ciprian Tincu, Claudia Oana Cobilinschi, Tiberiu Paul Neagu, Gabriel Becheanu, Ruxandra-Diana Sinescu, Ionel Alexandru Checherita, Ioana Marina Grintescu, Ioan Lascar

Organophosphate (OP) use remains largely available worldwide despite more strict regulatory measures, in agriculture, parks or households, leading to a daily low-dose exposure. The systemic dysfunction appears partly due to acetylcholinesterase inhibition, exhibiting a primary toxic effect on the endocrine system but also on the liver and kidneys, which are responsible for products metabolization and elimination. Prolonged OP exposure can be responsible for histopathological (HP) changes that can either evolve or worsen pre-existing conditions. We conducted an experimental study including six male Wistar rats divided into two groups (four rats in the study group and two in the control group). The subjects in the first group were administered 100 mg/kg Chlorpyrifos half median lethal dose (LD50) at baseline and at 48 hours, under general anesthesia. Organ harvesting was achieved after one week. HP modifications were discovered in all kidney samples, with dystrophic changes and vacuolization of mesangial cells, dilation of renal tubules and epithelial atrophy. Congestion of vascular structures also occurred. The liver samples showed severe alteration in both vessels and hepatocytes. Adrenal gland impairment was confirmed through an increase in vacuole number in all areas, while a decrease in colloid content was noted in the thyroid gland simultaneously with a modified foamy aspect. This study is the first to certify the extent of organ injury induced by OP exposure, describing both glomerular and tubular involvement in the kidneys, liver necrosis and endocrine disturbances.

Corresponding author: Tiberiu Paul Neagu, Assistant Professor, MD, PhD; e-mail: dr.neagupaul@gmail.com; Ionel Alexandru Checherita, Professor, MD, PhD; e-mail: al.checherita@gmail.com

DOI: 10.47162/RJME.61.2.11 Download PDF
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