Latest advances in chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps endotyping and biomarkers, and their significance for daily practice

Vol. 61 No. 2, 2020

ROMANIAN JOURNAL of MORPHOLOGY and EMBRYOLOGY

Alma Aurelia Maniu, Maria Ida Perde-Schrepler, Corina-Bianca Tatomir, Mihai Ionut Tanase, Maximilian George Dindelegan, Vlad Andrei Budu, Gheorghe Doinel Radeanu, Marcel Cosgarea, Carmen Aurelia Mogoanta

The term chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) comprises of an assortment of diseases that share a common feature: inflammation of the sinonasal mucosa. The phenotype classification of CRS, based on the presence of polyps, has failed to offer a curative treatment for the disease, particularly in refractory cases. Chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) remains a challenging entity. Researchers have made efforts trying to characterize subtypes of the disease according to the endotypes, which are delineated by different immunological pathways, using biomarkers. Even if the inflammatory processes controlling CRSwNP are not fully understood, data suggested that the disease associated with a type 2 inflammatory mechanisms can be also linked to the type 1 or type 3 pathomechanism, being highly heterogeneous. Biomarkers for CRSwNP are proposed, such as: eosinophil count, cytokines, metalloproteinases, bitter and sweet taste receptors, and the nasal microbiome. For endotyping to be clinically applicable and simply determined, biomarkers referring to the intrinsic biomolecular mechanism still need to be found. Precision medicine is becoming the new standard of care, but innovative therapies such as biologics may be rather challenging for the clinicians in their daily practice. This new approach to CRSwNP implies patient selection and a simple algorithm for deciding the right treatment, easy to implement and adjust. Our review points out the ongoing new research on the pathophysiology of CRSwNP, biomarkers and treatment opportunities. It allows clinicians to keep abreast of current evidence-based knowledge and to individualize the management of CRSwNP, especially in refractory cases.

Corresponding author: Vlad Andrei Budu, Senior Lecturer, MD, PhD; e-mail: vladbudu@yahoo.com; Mihai Ionut Tanase, MD, PhD Student; e-mail: dr.mihaitanase@gmail.com

DOI: 10.47162/RJME.61.2.01 Download PDF
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