Breast myeloid sarcoma after allogeneic stem cell transplantation for acute myelomonocytic leukemia - case report

Vol. 60 No. 2, 2019

ROMANIAN JOURNAL of MORPHOLOGY and EMBRYOLOGY

Lucia Bubulac, Alexandru Bardas, Delia Codruta Popa, Ecaterina Didona Vasilache, Bogdan Octavian Ionescu, Daniel Coriu, Zsofia Varady, Camelia-Marioara Dobrea

Defined as a rare extramedullary tumor, myeloid sarcoma (MS) is in the attention of specialists, although the information in the literature is represented especially through case reports. MS can precede acute myeloid leukemia (AML), appear simultaneous and can be the only manifestation of leukemia relapse after allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT). We present the case of a 30-year-old female diagnosed with acute myelomonocytic leukemia (AML M4), with complete remission (CR) after chemotherapy, followed by allo-SCT for consolidation. After five months, the patient presented right breast tumors. Ultrasound-guided biopsy of the breast lesion displayed diffuse infiltration of undifferentiated tumor cells, with blastic granulocytic features, strongly immunopositive for cluster of differentiation (CD) 45, CD99, CD34 and myeloperoxidase (MPO) and negative for all epithelial markers [MNF116, cytokeratin 7 (CK7), estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), E-cadherin]. The final diagnosis was AML relapse with breast MS. After multiple leukemia relapses with breast MS, the patient died with cerebral bleeding secondary to severe thrombocytopenia.

Corresponding author: Lucia Bubulac, Assistant Professor, MD; e-mails: lucia.bubulac@umfcd.ro, luciabubulacmed@yahoo.com

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