The prognostic value of CXCR4, alpha-SMA and WASL in upper lip basal cell carcinomas

Vol. 59 No. 3, 2018


Alex-Ioan Salan, Petre-Costin Marasescu, Adrian Camen, Eduard-Mihai Ciuca, Marius Matei, Alma-Maria Florescu, Vlad Padureanu, Claudiu Margaritescu

Lip cancers account for 10-12% of the total head and neck cancers and, although squamous cell carcinoma is by far the most common lower lip cancer, the basal cell carcinoma (BCC) seems to be more common for the upper lip. Most BCCs have a clinically indolent behavior, but there are also local aggressive and/or metastatic cases, with the incidence of such cases being estimated at about 1-10% of all cases of BCC. Many of the molecular mechanisms underlying this aggression are still unknown, which is why our study aimed to investigate the potential prognosis of a few markers, such as C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4), alpha-smooth muscle actin (alpha-SMA) and Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome like (WASL) in upper lip BCCs. For this purpose, 24 basocellular cancers with this localization have been investigated immunohistochemically, histopathologically belonging to the next varieties: superficial, nodular, micronodular, adenoid cystic, keratotic, sclerodermiform and mixed. Regardless of the histopathological subtype, for all invasive cases we have recorded an increased reactivity of the three markers especially in the invasion front, reactivity also present at the stroma level, especially at the stroma-parenchyma interface. The most intense immunoreactivity was obtained for the micronodular and sclerodermiform subtypes, confirming their biological behavior to be more aggressive than the rest of the investigated strains. All these results confirm the prognostic value of the CXCR4/alpha-SMA/WASL panel in assessing the biological behavior of the upper lip BCC.

Corresponding author: Petre-Costin Marasescu, Teaching Assistant, MD, PhD; e-mail:

Download PDF
Download cover
Download contents

Journal archive