Morpho-histological assessment of the periodontal support structures under the action of excessive occlusal forces and under the influence of nicotine

Vol. 59 No. 1, 2018

ROMANIAN JOURNAL of MORPHOLOGY and EMBRYOLOGY

Ana Ispas, Carmen Mihaela Mihu, Antarinia Maria Craciun, Mariana Constantiniuc

Smoking and occlusal trauma are two factors that can interfere with bone homeostasis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the histocellular changes occurring in the periodontal ligament and alveolar bone during the action of excessive occlusal forces, and to assess the influence of nicotine on the alveolar bone loss in teeth subjected to occlusal trauma. Materials and Methods: Fifty-six Wistar rats were randomized into seven groups (n=8). Animals were exposed to nicotine and occlusal trauma for 7, 14 and 30 days. Three groups were exposed to occlusal trauma alone, another three groups were exposed to occlusal trauma and nicotine, and one group was not exposed to any treatment. Results: Periodontal lesions induced in the first stage (7-14 days) manifested by a moderate increase of the periodontal space, a multiplication, thickening and elongation of periodontal fibers, as well as their condensation in the middle area of the periradicular space. Regarding bone changes induced by occlusal trauma, groups 5 and 7 (occlusal trauma and nicotine administration) had higher bone losses compared to groups 1, 2, 3, 4 and 6. This study demonstrated that nicotine significantly affected the alveolar bone. Conclusions: The induced occlusal trauma caused obvious tissue damage. At the same time, it was found that nicotine enhanced alveolar bone resorption, increased tooth mobility and induced an exacerbation of inflammatory processes.

Corresponding author: Carmen Mihaela Mihu, Professor, MD, PhD; e-mail: carmenmihu2004@yahoo.com

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