Clinicopathological significance and prognostic value of myoinvasive patterns in endometrial endometrioid carcinoma

Vol. 59 No. 1, 2018


Cornelia Amalinei, Anda Maria Aignatoaei, Raluca Anca Balan, Simona Eliza Giusca, Ludmila Lozneanu, Elena Roxana Avadanei, Irina-Draga Caruntu

Endometrioid endometrial carcinoma has an overall good prognosis. However, variable five-year survival rates (92%-42%) have been reported in FIGO stage I, suggesting the involvement of other factors related to tumor biological behavior. These may be related to the role played by epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and cancer stem cells in endometrial carcinogenesis. In this context, our review highlights the prognostic significance of several types of myoinvasion in low grade, low stage endometrioid endometrial carcinoma, as a reflection of these molecular changes at the invasive front. According to recently introduced myoinvasive patterns, the diffusely infiltrating and microcystic, elongated, and fragmented (MELF) patterns show loss of hormone receptors, along with EMT and high expression of cancer stem cell markers, being associated with a poor prognosis. Additionally, MELF pattern exhibits a high incidence of lymphovascular invasion and lymph node metastases. Conversely, the broad front pattern has a good prognosis and a low expression of EMT and stem cells markers. Similarly, the adenomyosis (AM)-like and adenoma malignum patterns of invasion are associated to a favorable prognosis, but nevertheless, they raise diagnostic challenges. AM-like pattern must be differentiated from carcinoma invasion of AM foci, while adenoma malignum pattern creates difficulties in appreciating the depth of myoinvasion and requires differential diagnosis with other conditions. Another pattern expecting its validation and prognostic significance value is the nodular fasciitis-like stroma and large cystic growth pattern. In practice, the knowledge of these patterns of myoinvasion may be valuable for the correct assessment of stage, may improve prognosis evaluation and may help identify molecules for future targeted therapies.

Corresponding author: Anda Maria Aignatoaei, MD, PhD Student; e-mail:

Download PDF
Download cover
Download contents

Journal archive