Improved diagnosis and long-term recurrence rate reduction for non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer patients undergoing fluorescent hexylaminolevulinate photodynamic diagnosis

Vol. 58 No. 4, 2017


Petru Octavian Dragoescu, Stefania Tudorache, Andrei Ioan Drocas, George Mitroi, Andrei Panus, Nicoleta Alice Marilena Dragoescu, Cristian Mesina, Cosmin Daniel Mititelu, Andreea Doriana Stanculescu, Guleed Mohamed, Paul Ioan Tomescu

Background: Bladder cancer (BC) currently accounts for 5% of all malignancies and the most common tumor of the urinary tract. Diagnosis of bladder cancer is based on urine cytology and white-light cystoscopy (WLC) performed for patients with suspected bladder mass and/or hematuria. Recent studies suggest that using the fluorescence photodynamic diagnosis (PDD) significantly improves diagnostic sensitivity with a positive influence upon the recurrence rate of bladder cancer. Objective: To evaluate the diagnostic efficiency and long-term influence upon the tumor recurrence rate for patients with non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) undergoing hexaminolevulinate PDD compared to standard WLC. Patients, Materials and Methods: Between 2009 and 2011, 113 primary NMIBC patients were enrolled in our prospective study and randomized in two parallel groups: 57 patients in the study group (PDD) and 56 patients in the control group (WLC). All patients had primary Ta/T1 NMIBC with good life expectancy and no significant bladder outlet obstruction [postvoid residual urine volume (PVR) <100 mL]. Results: Fluorescence cystoscopy examination identified 26.3% more tumors than the conventional examination (p=0.034) in the PDD group. Tumor recurrence rate analysis proved a significant reduction by up to 20% after five years of follow-up by using PDD [hazard ratio (HR) 0.566, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.343-0.936; p=0.0267]. Conclusions: The use of PDD for patients with NMIBC results in a significant 26% diagnostic sensitivity improvement as well as superior patient prognosis and quality of life following conservative treatment by reducing the tumor recurrence rate with up to 20% after five years of follow-up.

Corresponding author: Stefania Tudorache, Associate Professor, MD, PhD, Senior Obstetrics and Gynecology Specialist; e-mail:

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