Clinical and biological outcomes of prolonged treatment with haloperidol in schizophrenia

Vol. 57 No. 2 Suppl., 2016
This supplement was not sponsored by Outside Organizations.

ROMANIAN JOURNAL of MORPHOLOGY and EMBRYOLOGY

Mihai Mutica, Ileana Marinescu, Felicia Militaru, Mihail-Cristian Pirlog, Ion Udristoiu

Paranoid schizophrenia with long-term course is a challenge for the clinical and therapeutic research, particularly because chronic course is difficult to identify due to the high rate of mortality in this category of patients. The therapeutic stability on an antipsychotic molecule (haloperidol) is indeed an exception, since the current trend in the case of unfavorable course is based on therapeutic versatility and polypharmacy. Haloperidol is the first-generation antipsychotic that is referred in the therapeutic guidelines as the golden standard regarding its efficacy on positive symptoms. The research in fundamental and molecular psychopharmacology has shown the aggressivity of this molecule on the secondary and tertiary signaling chains, including mitochondrial alterations. On male patients with paranoid schizophrenia (positive symptoms) and a chronic course of more than 35 years who received exclusively haloperidol, our study demonstrated an negative outcome with the loss of social functioning, persistence of positive symptoms, chronic extrapyramidal symptoms and mild cognitive impairment. The neuroimaging evaluations have shown atrophy in the temporal poles, posterior ventriculomegaly, cerebellar atrophy and calcification on choroid plexus and pineal gland. The difference between the histological changes induced by haloperidol on animal model and the ones on the patients in our study is located in the frontal cortex, thus suggesting the presence of two neurobiological models of schizophrenia in men: fronto-striatal and temporal-limbic-striatal. The persistence of extrapyramidal symptoms during the treatment with haloperidol may be considered as a clinical marker of the risk for negative outcome and a potential indication for the therapeutic switch.

Corresponding author: Felicia Militaru, Teaching Assistant, MD; e-mail: feliciobanu@yahoo.com

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ROMANIAN JOURNAL of MORPHOLOGY and EMBRYOLOGY

Alin-Stefan Stefanescu-Dima, Cornelia Andreea Corici, Maria-Rodica Manescu, Teodor-Nicusor Sas, Maria Iancau, Carmen-Luminita Mocanu

Aim: Posterior vitreous detachment (PVD) is a physiological phenomenon due to aging characterized by separation of the vitreous cortex from the retina and may induce a variety of pathological events at the vitreoretinal junction. The aim of this study is to highlight in vivo anatomical and functional changes in early stages of PVD allowing the correct treatment. Material and Methods: Non-consecutive case series; optical coherence tomography (OCT) relies on analyzing the reflectivity of coherent light from different anatomical interfaces within posterior vitreous and retinal histological layers, thus acquiring transverse sections through vitreoretinal interface, sensory retina, retinal pigment epithelium and choroid. Modern techniques using Fourier spectral analysis of the reflected light enhance axial resolution to 5-10 micro-m, almost matching classic histological sections. Integrating these sections, OCT can reconstruct three-dimensional tissue anatomy. Full-field electroretinogram (ERG) evaluates the function of the entire retina evoked by a flash light. Results: Imaging of the vitreoretinal interface with OCT allowed staging PVD and correctly diagnosing its secondary pathologies: cystoid macular edema, vitreomacular traction syndrome, epiretinal membrane, macular pucker, macular hole, macular pseudohole, lamellar macular hole. The cone response of full-field ERG is a marker of retinal damage in macular pathology due to PVD. Conclusions: Correct understanding of vitreoretinal anatomic and functional changes due to posterior vitreous detachment is essential for a proper diagnosis and treatment.

Corresponding author: Cornelia Andreea Corici, MD, PhD Student; e-mail: corici.andreea@gmail.com

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