Assessment of orthodontic biomaterials cytotoxicity: an in vitro study on cell culture

Vol. 56 No. 3, 2015

ROMANIAN JOURNAL of MORPHOLOGY and EMBRYOLOGY

Alina Sodor, Alexandru Simion Ogodescu, Tudor Petreus, Alina Maria Sisu, Irina Nicoleta Zetu

Objective: Orthodontists use various biomaterials such as molar bands, brackets, archwires, transpalatal archwires, facial masks and other auxiliary devices. One of the essential properties of these materials should be the biocompatibility. The aim of this study was to evaluate the biocompatibility of some orthodontic biomaterials like stainless steel archwires, brackets and NiTi (nickel-titanium alloy) coil springs. Materials and Methods: The studies were performed in vitro using human fibroblasts cultures on which the orthodontic materials were applied. The positive control was the copper amalgam. Readings of the cell reactions were performed at three and six days. Results: It was observed that the materials used in the study cause cell alterations of variable intensity. The metallic brackets represent an important cell stress factor causing shape changes. For the metallic brackets, a preferential tropism for different areas of the bracket was also obvious. We observed a preferential tropism for the areas between the NiTi coil spring spirals. For the stainless steel archwires, we observed at six days a decay of cell density and also a higher amount of cells near the archwire areas on which bends were performed. Conclusions: All biomaterials analyzed in our study cause cellular changes of varying intensity without necessarily showing a cytotoxic character.

Corresponding author: Alexandru Simion Ogodescu, Lecturer, MD, PhD; e-mail: ogodescu@yahoo.com

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