Imaging neuroinflammation after brain injuries by ultrasensitive MRI and two-photon laser-scanning microscopy

Vol. 55 No. 3 Suppl., 2014
This supplement was not sponsored by Outside Organizations.


Anja Scheller, Denis Vivien, Frank Kirchhoff, Cyrille Orset, Raluca Elena Sandu, Aurel Popa-Wagner

Worldwide, stroke is the leading cause of disability in the aging population. Neuroinflammation is a common feature of acute stroke and is considered to be a major obstacle to endogenous neurogenesis and exogenously administered stem cells. Therefore, drug and cell therapies aimed at suppressing post-stroke inflammation have emerged as a promising approach to improve recovery after stroke. However, progress toward the development of efficient cell-based therapies for ischemic stroke has been disappointing mainly because the interplay between host neuroinflammation and stem cell-based therapies during the acute stroke and the recuperation phase is virtually unknown. The pathophysiological evolution of stroke events indeed seems driven by complex cellular interactions between several different cell types whose sequential recruitments have been insufficiently documented due to the lack of respective technologies, in particular, of non-invasive imaging modalities. The development of in vivo ultrasensitive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and two-photon laser-scanning microscopy has revolutionized our understanding of neuroinflammation. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to highlight the interplay between host neuroinflammation, which is considered to be a major obstacle to exogenous-mediated neuronal precursor cells, and exogenously administered stem cells.

Corresponding author: Aurel Popa-Wagner, MD, PhD; e-mail:

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Roxana Cristina Popescu, Ecaterina Andronescu, Alexandru Mihai Grumezescu

Our review summarizes the latest approaches regarding in vivo biocompatibility evaluation of magnetite nanoparticle-based systems. The paper follows the applications of Fe3O4 nanoparticles in cancer diagnosis and treatment, by means of nanoparticle-mediated magnetic hyperthermia, respectively by targeted delivery of chemotherapeutics. The long-term biodistribution in relevant organisms is also discussed, due to the need of knowing the exact course of magnetite nanoparticles after the fulfillment of their function. Several commercial Fe3O4 systems used as contrast agents for medical imaging and cancer treatment by hyperthermia are briefly presented in the last section.

Corresponding author: Alexandru Mihai Grumezescu, Chem Eng, PhD; e-mail:

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