Peutz-Jeghers syndrome: case report and literature review

Vol. 49 No. 2, 2008

ROMANIAN JOURNAL of MORPHOLOGY and EMBRYOLOGY

E. F. Georgescu, Ligia Stănescu, Cristiana Simionescu, Iuliana Georgescu, Reanina Ionescu, G. Florescu

Periorificial lentiginosis, also knew as Peutz-Jeghers Syndrome (PJS), is an autosomally dominant inherited condition determined by a mutation localized at 19p13.3 responsible for mucocutaneous pigmentation and gastrointestinal polyps. Skin- and mucosal pigmentation may be present at birth but usually occur in early childhood, and occasionally may develop later. Round, oval or irregular patches of brown or almost black pigmentation 1 to 5 mm diameter, irregularly distributed over the oral mucosa, gums, hard palate and lips (especially the lower) are observed. The pigmented maculae on the face, encountered especially around the nose and mouth are smaller. Polyps may appear in the stomach, small bowel or colon, with hamartomatous aspects on histology. Acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding and chronic fecal blood loss may appear during the course of disease. There is a higher risk of intestinal and extraintestinal cancers in those patients. We present the case of an 18-year-old young girl accusing since the age of 3 slight intermittent episodes of bloating and abdominal pain without a particular localization, as well as mild iron-deficiency anemia. Physical examination revealed pigmented lesions suggesting PSJ on the palatine and jugal mucosa while endoscopy found a lot of polyps in stomach and a few, isolated in the colon, all having the same hamartomatous pattern. The presence in early infancy of small, well demarcated and dark-brown to blue-black lentigines on the lips, buccal mucosa and perioral skin, should alert the clinician to PJS.

Corresponding author: Eugen Florin Georgescu, MD, PhD, e-mail: efg@usa.net

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