Clinical, histopathological and immunohistochemical behavior of peri-implant soft tissue

Vol. 61 No. 1, 2020

ROMANIAN JOURNAL of MORPHOLOGY and EMBRYOLOGY

Monica Mihaela Iacov-Craitoiu, Mihai Craitoiu

The presence of foreign materials in the tissues, represented in the present study by the insertion of dental implants, creates artificial structures that can sometimes cause adverse consequences, which implies the obligation to perform a complex medical assessment before inserting dental implants. This assessment appreciates the quality of the tissue, depending on which the use of a certain type of biomaterial is indicated and focuses on a certain surgical technique. We assessed the clinical, histopathological (HP) and immunohistochemical (IHC) aspects of peri-implant soft tissue in patients who did not show mobility or imagistic signs of bone resorption, three months after implant insertion, some of them showing no inflammatory clinical signs. Immunohistochemically, on the sections of the peri-implant mucosa, we assessed the presence of mast cells, vascularization and the process of angiogenesis. Mast cells are key cells actively involved in the pathogenesis of peri-implant inflammation, having an immunomodulatory role. Vasodilation and angiogenesis, determined by the release of chemical mediators by degranulation of mast cells under the action of pathogens, induce tissue remodeling, ensuring the healing and formation of a tissue to form a barrier that effectively prevents the development of a bacterial biofilm. Thus, the control of the activity of these cells is important for the management of the local inflammatory process. The correlations between the clinical, HP and IHC behavior of the peri-implant soft tissue bring important information for the clinic, emphasizing the need to identify a therapeutic strategy to modulate mast cell activity, in order to prevent and treat peri-implant disease, to ensure osseointegration and longer survival of the dental implant.

Corresponding author: Monica Mihaela Iacov-Craitoiu, Associate Professor, MD, PhD; e-mail: mcraitoiu@yahoo.com

DOI: 10.47162/RJME.61.1.13 Download PDF