Severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) - a seven-year comparative study in a Department of Forensic Medicine

Vol. 61 No. 1, 2020

ROMANIAN JOURNAL of MORPHOLOGY and EMBRYOLOGY

Razvan Stefan Tolescu, Marian Valentin Zorila, Mircea-Sebastian Serbanescu, Kamal Constantin Kamal, George Lucian Zorila, Ilie Dumitru, Charoula Florou, Laurentiu Mogoanta, Ion Alexandru Vaduva, Liliana Stanca, Roxana Eugenia Zavoi

Deaths caused by traumatic brain injury (TBI) increase in incidence every year worldwidely, mainly in developing countries. Thus, World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that in 2020, TBI will become the third main cause of death. In our study, we evaluated the deaths caused by TBI recorded within the Institute of Forensic Medicine of Craiova, Romania, between 2011 and 2017. Therefore, according to age, the cases were divided into two groups: people aged 0-18 years old (including 18 years old) and people aged over 18 years old (a total of 1005 cases, of which 971 were adults and 34 included in the age group 0-18 years old). In both groups, most patients were males from the rural area. In adults, falling was the main legal entity of the cases, followed by car accidents (which were the most common in children). In both groups, in car accidents, most of them were pedestrians and car occupants. Various aggressions (human, animal, self-injury) were found in 94 (9.68%) of the adult cases and in four (11.76%) cases of children. Another parameter under study was the blood alcohol concentration, being observed that most of the subjects with positive blood alcohol content died from car accidents. By evaluating the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score as a prognostic factor, most of the subjects presented third and fourth degree coma at admission; still, 5.14% of the adult patients who deceased had GCS score 15 at admission, death occurring probably by developing some intracranial hematomas in time. Regarding the morphology of the lesions, most patients presented various forms of cranial fractures, 185 (19.05%) adults in association with extradural hemorrhages/hematomas, but also there were four cases with extradural hematomas without any cranial fractures. In children, there was highlighted a single case of extradural hemorrhage under the fracture line. Seventy-eight percent of the adults and 44.12% of children presented subdural hematomas associated with other meningo-cerebral lesions. Also, 83.63% of the adults and 97% of children presented brain contusions. In both groups, brain laceration was observed in approximately 50% of the cases.

Corresponding author: Mircea-Sebastian Serbanescu, Lecturer, MD, PhD; e-mail: mircea_serbanescu@yahoo.com; George Lucian Zorila, University Assistant, MD, PhD; e-mail: zorilalucian@gmail.com

DOI: 10.47162/RJME.61.1.10 Download PDF