Molecular mechanisms underlying neurodevelopmental disorders, ADHD and autism

Vol. 57 No. 2 Suppl., 2016
This supplement was not sponsored by Outside Organizations.

ROMANIAN JOURNAL of MORPHOLOGY and EMBRYOLOGY

George Mihai Badescu, Madalina Filfan, Raluca Elena Sandu, Roxana Surugiu, Ovidiu Ciobanu, Aurel Popa-Wagner

Neurodevelopmental disorders such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and autism represent a significant economic burden, which justify vigorous research to uncover its genetics and developmental clinics for a diagnostic workup. The urgency of addressing attention deficit hyperactivity disorder comorbidities is seen in the chilling fact that attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), mood disorders, substance use disorders and obesity each increase the risk for mortality. However, data about comorbidity is mainly descriptive, with mechanistic studies limited to genetic epidemiological studies that document shared genetic risk factors among these conditions. Autism and intellectual disability affects 1.5 to 2% of the population in Western countries with many individuals displaying social-emotional agnosia and having difficulty in forming attachments and relationships. Underlying mechanisms include: (i) dysfunctions of neuronal miRNAs; (ii) deletions in the chromosome 21, subtelomeric deletions, duplications and a maternally inherited duplication of the chromosomal region 15q11-q13; (iii) microdeletions in on the long (q) arm of the chromosome in a region designated q21.1 increases the risk of delayed development, intellectual disability, physical abnormalities, and neurological and psychiatric problems associated with autism, schizophrenia, and epilepsy and weak muscle tone (hypotonia); (iv) interstitial duplications encompassing 16p13.11.

Corresponding author: Ovidiu Ciobanu; e-mail: ovidiu.ciobanu@upkbs.ch

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ROMANIAN JOURNAL of MORPHOLOGY and EMBRYOLOGY

Laurentiu Cornel Pirtea, Dorin Grigoras, Ioan Sas, Adrian Cosmin Ilie, Loredana Gabriela Stana, Andrei Gheorghe Marius Motoc, Adelina Maria Jianu, Octavian Mazilu

Vasa praevia is a rare but very dangerous obstetrical condition. The purpose of our article is to evaluate data available in literature that indicate in vitro fertilization as a risk factor for vasa praevia. PubMed Library and Cochrane Database were searched using the keywords vasa praevia, in vitro fertilization, velamentous cord insertion, placenta praevia. The conditions related to in vitro fertilization that increase the risk of vasa praevia formation were identified and discussed. Also, the diagnosis and management options were reviewed. In vitro fertilization represents a risk factor for vasa praevia and all such pregnancies should be screened by transvaginal ultrasound for vasa praevia.

Corresponding author: Adelina Maria Jianu, Associate Professor, MD, PhD; e-mail: adelina.jianu@gmail.com

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