Partial abnormal drainage of superior and inferior caval veins into the left atrium: two case reports

Vol. 57 No. 2 Suppl., 2016
This supplement was not sponsored by Outside Organizations.


Massimo Chessa, Mario Carminati, Eliza-Elena Cinteza, Gianfranco Butera, Luca Giugno, Carmelo Arcidiacono, Luciane Piazza, Nicolae Cristian Bulescu, Giuseppe Pome, Alessandro Frigiola, Alessandro Giamberti

Abnormal connection of the right superior caval vein to the left atrium is an uncommon systemic vein drainage anomaly, with only a few cases reported among congenital heart disease (CHD), around 20 cases published in the medical literature. The inferior vena cava connection with the left atrium, also very rare, can appear directly or in heterotaxy. Clinical suspicion arises due to the presence of cyanosis in the absence of other specific clinical signs (without other associated CHD). We present the cases of two children with abnormal superior and inferior systemic venous return. The first case is an abnormal connection of right superior vena cava to the left atrium associated with persistent left superior vena cava draining into the right atrium through the coronary sinus. The second case is an interruption of the inferior vena cava with hemiazygos continuation, drained into the left superior vena cava, which drained into the left atrium. The diagnosis was imagistic - echocardiography and angiography. Surgical treatment solutions vary from one case to another, usually following anatomic correction. Hypoxia accompanied by cyanosis must bring into question the pathology of systemic venous drainage anomaly, after other common causes have been excluded. Surgery is indicated in all cases due to the risk associated with the presence of right-to-left shunt.

Corresponding author: Eliza-Elena Cinteza, MD, PhD; e-mail:

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Marius Stanimir, Luminita Cristina Chiutu, Sebastien Wese, Amelia Milulescu, Raducu Nicolae Nemes, Ovidiu Gabriel Bratu

The aim of this paper is to report a very rare case of mullerianosis (endosalpinx, endometrium, and endocervix) in a post-menopausal woman. Mullerianosis of the bladder is a very rare disease, which affects mainly the women of the reproductive age group, but with a good prognosis if the transitional bladder carcinoma is resolved. We present the case of a 64-year-old woman complaining of left lower abdomen pain, repeated lower and upper tract urinary infections, emergency urinary incontinence and hematuria. The surgical history shows that she underwent a hysterectomy, caesarean section and appendectomy. The clinical examination emphasizes a normal abdomen, with a normal aspect of the post-operative scars and a second-degree cystocele. An abdominal computed tomography (CT) scan with contrast and a cystography were performed and showed a 16 mm lesion-like tumor on the left bladder wall respectively a third-degree vesicoureteral reflux. These investigations were followed by a cystoscopy and transurethral resection of the bladder tumor (TURBT). The histopathology report described three types of tissues: endometriosis, endocervicosis and endosalpingiosis. Sequent to these results, a partial cystectomy with the re-implantation of the left ureter was performed. Once again, the results of the specimen confirm the diagnosis of mullerianosis. The immediate post-operative outcomes were good, the patient having no pains and no more hematuria. Six month later, a tension-free vaginal tape obturator (TVT-O) operation was carried out for urinary incontinence and two years later, a correction for a post-surgical abdominal hernia was performed. Mullerianosis of the bladder is a very rare disease, which affects mainly the women at the procreation age, but with a good prognosis. The differential diagnosis with a malignant tumor is very important to be carefully made. Currently, there is no golden standard to treat this disease. The cystoscopy and the histopathological examination of the specimen are indispensable for the certainty diagnosis.

Corresponding author: Luminita Cristina Chiutu, Professor, MD, PhD; e-mail:

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