Limb ischemia, an alarm signal to a thromboembolic cascade - renal infarction and nephrectomy followed by surgical suppression of the left atrial appendage

Vol. 57 No. 2 Suppl., 2016
This supplement was not sponsored by Outside Organizations.


Cosmin Carasca, Angela Borda, Alexandru Incze, Emilian Carasca, Attila Frigy, Horatiu Suciu

We present the case of a 55-year-old male with mild hypertension and brief episodes of paroxysmal self-limiting atrial fibrillation (AF) since 2010. Despite a small cardioembolic risk score, CHA2DS2-Vasc=1 (Congestive heart failure, Hypertension, Age>=75, Diabetes melitus, prior Stroke), the patient is effectively anticoagulated using acenocumarol. In December 2014, he showed signs of plantar transitory ischemia, for which he did not address the doctor. In early January 2015, he urgently presented at the hospital with left renal pain, caused by a renal infarction, diagnosed by computed tomography (CT) angiography. Left nephrectomy was performed with pathological confirmation. He was discharged with effective anticoagulation treatment. Within the next two weeks, he suffered a transitory ischemic event and a stroke, associated with right sided hemiparesis. On admission, AF was found and converted to sinus rhythm with effective anticoagulation - international normalized ratio (INR) of 2.12. Transthoracic echocardiography detected no pathological findings. Transesophageal echocardiography showed an expended left atrial appendage (LAA) with a slow blood flow (0.2 m/s) and spontaneous echocontrast. Considering these clinical circumstances, surgical LAA suppression was decided on as a last therapeutic resort. Postoperative evolution was favorable; the patient is still free of ischemic events, one year post-intervention. Some morphological and hemodynamic characteristics of LAA may add additional thromboembolic risk factors, not included in scores. Removing them by surgical LAA suppression may decrease the risk of cardioembolic events. Intraoperative presence of thrombus makes it an indisputable proof.

Corresponding author: Cosmin Carasca, Resident Doctor, PhD Student; e-mail:

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Vitorino Modesto dos Santos, Sandro Pinheiro Melim, Priscilla Souza de Faria, Viviane Vieira Passini, Mayza Lemes Duarte, Renata Athayde Casasanta

Plasma cell leukemia is very rare condition characterized by malignant proliferation of plasma cells in blood and bone marrow, which is aggressive and has a short survival even with conventional treatment. This ominous entity may be primary, or develops secondarily during the course of multiple myeloma. A 53-year-old Brazilian woman with multiple myeloma is described with bone marrow evaluation revealing 25% plasma cells. The quantification of plasma cell infiltration in bone marrow aspirate and immunohistochemistry study revealed consistent features of myeloma and plasma cell leukemia, and lambda light chain expression. Worthy of note was the absence of CD56 expression and the expression of CD20; moreover, 23% of circulating plasma cells were detected in peripheral blood smears. Therefore, the diagnosis of plasma cell leukemia was characterized and therapeutic schedules with dexamethasone, thalidomide, cisplatin, doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, and etoposide were utilized. With significant clinical improvement, the patient is currently waiting for bone marrow transplant.

Corresponding author: Vitorino Modesto dos Santos, Professor, MD, PhD; e-mail:

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