The nucleocrine pathway comes of age

Vol. 56 No. 2 Suppl., 2015
This supplement was not sponsored by Outside Organizations.


Razvan T. Radulescu

More than 20 years ago, it was initially predicted that hormones and growth factors might promote cell growth by binding and thereby inactivating tumor suppressors, as exemplified by the proposed complex formation between insulin and retinoblastoma protein (RB). This mainly intracellular/nuclear growth-regulatory circuit was termed the nucleocrine pathway and the physical interaction between insulin and RB was subsequently proven through several methods, primarily by immunofluorescence and co-immunoprecipitation. Meanwhile, additional nucleocrine pairs have emerged through further experimental studies, specifically the FGF1-p53 and angiogenin-p53 heterodimers. Moreover, first experimental clues have been obtained as to the intranuclear presence of the previously surmised heterodimer between the EGF precursor and the p130 tumor suppressor. In addition, RB-binding motifs have recently been discovered in interleukin-6 (IL-6) and cellular apoptosis susceptibility (CAS) protein. These findings point to a more general significance of the nucleocrine pathway in cell growth regulation and as a particularly useful target in cancer therapy.

Corresponding author: Razvan Tudor Radulescu, MD, PD Dr. med.; e-mail:

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Roxana Cristina Popescu, Mariana Oana Mihaela Fufa, Alexandru Mihai Grumezescu

The impressive diversity related to etiologic factors and the distinctive genetic and immunological behavior attained by various conditions represent the fundamental reasons for high-rated inefficient and eventual hazardous strategies entailed by conventional healthcare practice. Thanks to the tremendous progress reported in nanotechnology during the last decades, various unconventional and promising strategies have been successfully developed and examined with respect to potential genuine biomedical applications. Given the amazing possibility to manipulate matter at a molecular and atomic level and the incessant need to design and implement personalized therapies, various nanosized systems have thus been engineered. Among the newly developed nanomaterials, metallic nanoparticles have gain attention during the intense biomedical research activity, thanks to their peculiar size-conditioned properties. An efficient therapeutic strategy begins with an accurate diagnosis result, so the immediate requirement of such specific detection tools is conspicuous. The use of silver and gold in day-to-day activities is acknowledged since ancient times, but the novel technological opportunities extended their particular applications towards personalized medicine. It is worthy to mention that the unexpected nanodimension-related features of the aforementioned noble metals strongly recommend them for a large number of current applications in nanomedicine, including novel and specific metallic nanostructures used in diagnostics.

Corresponding author: Alexandru Mihai Grumezescu, Chem. Eng., PhD; e-mail:

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