Abnormal bilateral drainage of testicular veins: embryological aspects and surgical application

Vol. 53 No. 3 Suppl., 2012
This supplement was not sponsored by Outside Organizations.


G. K. Paraskevas, O. Ioannidis, K. Natsis, S. Martoglou

A combination of unusual bilateral drainage of the testicular veins observed in a male cadaver utilized for educational and research purposes is prescribed. In specific, the right testicular vein was terminated on the right renal vein at almost right angle, whereas the left testicular vein was bifurcated into a lateral component drained into the left renal vein and a medial component opened into the inferior vena cava close to its confluence with the left renal vein. Such a co-existence of bilateral testicular vein termination is very rarely presented in the literature. The main goal of this study is to provide an embryological development model for these variants and to highlight the likely occurrence of these anomalies to the surgeon of the region. The awareness of these venous anomalies can facilitate the surgeons in order to ligate properly and adequately the abnormal venous terminations and collaterals reducing that way the recurrence rate of varicocele.

Corresponding author: George K. Paraskevas, Assistant Professor, MD, PhD; e-mail: g_paraskevas@yahoo.gr

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M. C. Neamtu, Ligia Rusu, P. F. Rusu, M. Marin, Oana Maria Neamtu

Multiple sclerosis (MS) has a multifactorial etiology located at the interaction point of environmental factors - nutritional, geographic, infectious, etc. - with genetic factors, which confers susceptibility to disease or alters its development. This research presents a case study focused on complex assessment of a patient using clinical and functional assessment, biomechanical gait evaluation using RSScan force plate. Biomechanical parameters (contact area, load, impulse, force, pressure, foot balance) are the parameters that we obtain after force plate measurements. Analyzing the results of the functional assessment, it is found an anatomical functional abnormality with a tendency to increase. Biomechanical tests show an asymmetric gait due to the impact of neurological disorders generated in the proprioceptive system. Global analysis of values (surface contact, pressure, force, load, impulse, active contact area) indicates the fact that there is a tendency to develop a higher pressure in the anterior-medial region of the plant in an attempt to maintain balance. It is a tendency to increase the active contact area in the forefoot region; this increase is explained by the body tendency to develop compensatory mechanisms to maintain balance.

Corresponding author: Marius Cristian Neamtu, MD; e-mail: drcristianneamtu@yahoo.com

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