Healing process and laser therapy in the superficial periodontium: a histological study

Vol. 53 No. 1, 2012

ROMANIAN JOURNAL of MORPHOLOGY and EMBRYOLOGY

Silvia Martu, Cornelia Amalinei, Monica Tatarciuc, Maria Rotaru, Oana Potarnichie, Ludmila Liliac, Irina-Draga Caruntu

Aim: To evaluate the efficiency of laser therapy in healing, regeneration and repair processes located in the superficial periodontium after gingivectomy procedures. Materials and Methods: The study group consisted of 38 patients without any systemic diseases presenting with gingival hypertrophy developed exclusively within the clinical context of gingivitis and/or periodontitis. All patients were included in the study based on their informed consent. All patients required several surgical interventions at the level of the superficial periodontium. Subgroup 1 (17 patients) was treated only through gingivectomy procedures. For subgroup 2 (21 patients), the gingivectomy was associated with laser therapy, applied every day for seven days. Gingival mucosa fragments were taken on day 1 (curative gingivectomy) and on day 21 (clinical control and corrective gingivectomy), and routinely processed for the microscopic exam, using Hematoxylin-Eosin and special stains (trichrome Szekely and Periodic Acid-Schiff). Results and Discussion: The comparison between the morphological pictures characterizing the healing process associated or not with laser therapy, allowed the identification of some features supporting the benefits of laser therapy. We believe that the decrease in the inflammatory infiltrate located in the lamina propria is the critical morphological trait for the control of a healing process as near to restitutio ad integrum as possible. The diminished number of lymphocytes and macrophages will implicitly determine a lower production of chemical mediators interfering with the sequences of the healing process. Conclusions: The morphological differences identified at the gingival epithelium level and subjacent lamina propria support the value of laser therapy, stimulating an improved healing of the damaged tissues.

Corresponding author: Irina-Draga Caruntu, Professor, MD, PhD, e-mail: irinadragacaruntu@gmail.com

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