Morphological identification of neuron types in the rat hippocampus

Vol. 52 No. 1 Suppl., 2011
This supplement was not sponsored by Outside Organizations.

ROMANIAN JOURNAL of MORPHOLOGY and EMBRYOLOGY

T. Szilagyi, K. Orban-Kis, Emoke Horvath, Julia Metz, Zsuzsanna Pap, Z. Pavai

The cerebral cortex ensures an optimal interaction of mammals, including humans, with their environment, by encoding, storing and combining information about the surrounding world and the internal milieu. Probably the simplest and the most popular region for studying the cortical network is the hippocampal CA1 area, because it has the least heterogeneous neuronal population, the somata and dendrites of principal neurons (pyramidal cells) are arranged into well defined layers and the extrinsic and intrinsic inputs are segregated. The relatively homogeneous pyramidal cell population is supported by a very heterogeneous GABAergic interneuron population, which provides not only general inhibition, but also regulates the precise timing of pyramidal cell activity. Interneurons usually innervate distinct domains of the surface of their target cell. The strategic placement of inhibitory synapses, indicate that GABAergic interneurons belonging to different classes serve distinct functions in the hippocampal network. Neuron types are usually defined according to various morphological, molecular and physiological features. Under typical experimental conditions only some of these parameters are available, therefore an important scientific question is: which partial measures are sufficient for correct recognition of a class of cell. By immunohistochemistry it is possible to stain all neurochemically identical neurons in a given brain region, therefore it is the most widely used method for identifying neuron classes. This review presents the neuron types identified so far in the area CA1 of the rat hippocampus with special emphasis on the immunocytochemical characterization of these cells.

Corresponding author: Tibor Szilagyi, Professor, MD, PhD, e-mail: szilagyi67@gmail.com

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ROMANIAN JOURNAL of MORPHOLOGY and EMBRYOLOGY

E. Vollmer, T. Goldmann

Pathology is a bridging discipline that involves both basic and clinical biomedical sciences. In this context, it includes both descriptive and mechanistic approaches, with the final goals of further understanding the anatomic and functional changes and underlying molecular events involved in disease-related processes. Pathology studies mainly comprise macroscopic and microscopic examinations, and involve the visual recognition of different patterns in cells and tissues. In time elapsed to this end, it has adopted a dazzling array of methods and techniques from the most varied fields of natural and engineering sciences in order to optimize tissue analysis, which will be summarized in this article.

Corresponding author: Ekkehard Vollmer, Professor, e-mail: evollmer@fz-borstel.de

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